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January is National Stalking Awareness Month

January 2022 marks the 18th National Stalking Awareness Month (NSAM), an annual call to action to recognize and respond to this traumatic and dangerous crime. It is critical to raise the issue of stalking as a form of interpersonal violence as well as a crime that frequently predicts and co-occurs with physical and sexual assault. Stalking impacts more than 1 in 6 women and 1 in 17 men in the United States[i] and yet—despite its prevalence and impacts—many victims, families, service providers, criminal justice professionals, and members of the general public underestimate its danger and urgency. Survivors often suffer anxiety, social dysfunction, and severe depression as a result of their victimization, and many lose time from work and/or relocate.[ii],[iii] And it’s not only psychological: 1 in 5 stalkers use weapons to threaten or harm victims,[iv] and stalking increases the risk of intimate partner homicide by three times.[v]

Stalking is defined as a pattern of behavior directed at a specific person that causes fear or emotional distress. Stalkers often follow, monitor, and wait for their victims, as well as leave them unwanted gifts, spread rumors about them, and repeatedly call, text, and message them.[vi] The majority of stalking victims experience both in-person and technology-facilitated stalking.[vii] And the most common types of technology-facilitated abuse—harassment, limiting access to technology, and surveillance—increased during the pandemic.[viii]

One of the difficulties of recognizing and responding to stalking is that each individual act may not be a problem or a crime on its own, but each act becomes criminal when part of that pattern of behavior that comprises stalking. And stalking is a crime in federal jurisdictions, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, U.S. Territories, tribal lands, and the military justice system.

NSAM’s theme of “Know It. Name It. Stop It.” is a call to action for everyone across the country. The vast majority of victims tell friends or family about their situation first, and how we respond influences whether they seek further help or not.

We all have a role to play in identifying stalking, intervening when necessary, and supporting victims and survivors. Someplace Safe will be sharing information all month long on social media to promote awareness and public education about stalking during January.

For more information about National Stalking Awareness Month, please visit Someplace Safe’s website at: https://www.someplacesafe.info/helping-someone/crime-victim-advocacy/other-types-of-crime/stalking.html. You can also visit https://stalkingawareness.org and www.ovw.usdoj.gov.


[i] Smith, S.G., Zhang, X., Basile, K.C., Merrick, M.T., Wang, J., Kresnow, M., Chen, J. (2018). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2015 Data Brief. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

[ii] Blaauw, E., Arensman, E., Winkel, F.W., Freeve, A., & Sheridan, L. (2002). The Toll of Stalking. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 17(1): 50-63.

[iii] Baum, K., Catalano, S., & Rand, M. (2009).Stalking Victimization in the United States. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

[iv] Mohandie, K., Meloy, J.R., McGowan, M.G., & Williams, J. (2006).The RECON Typology of Stalking: Reliability and Validity Based upon a Large Sample of North American Stalkers. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51 (1), 147-155.

[v] Spencer, C.M. & Stith, S.M. (2018). Risk Factors for Male Perpetration and Female Victimization of Intimate Partner Homicide: A Meta-Analysis. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 21(3): 527-540.

[vi] Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Basile, K.C., Walters, M.L., Chen, J & Merrick, M.T. (2014). Surveillance Summaries, Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Victimization – National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2011. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

[vii] Truman, J.L., & Morgan, R.E. (2021). Stalking Victimization, 2016. Washington, DC: US DOJ, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Special Report.

[viii] Safety Net. (2021). Tech Abuse in the Pandemic & Beyond: Reflections from the Field. National Network to End Domestic Violence. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/51dc541ce4b03ebab8c5c88c/t/61674c082419497a370af990/1634159630368/2021_T2E+Needs+Assessment+Report.pdf

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